CMST 3JJ3 Rise Of The Music Indusrty
Academic Year: Fall 2015
Instructor: Dr. Christina Baade
Office: Togo Salmon Hall 329A
Phone: 905-525-9140 x 23736
Office Hours: 2:30-4:30 p.m., Wed
- Course Objectives
- Textbooks, Materials & Fees
- Method of Assessment
- Policy on Missed Work, Extensions, and Late Penalties
- Additional Policies and Statements
- Topics and Readings
- Other Course Information
This course examines the role of media, technology, performance, policy and business practices in the historical and ongoing development of the music industry and of popular music and its cultural meanings. We will consider how changing modes of music performance, distribution and consumption affect our thinking about music—as a performance, an aesthetic object, a cultural text, and a commodity. We will pay particular attention to how musical genres are articulated in relation to identities of gender, race, class, nationality, and sexuality for both cultural producers and audiences.
With an approach grounded in the interdisciplinary field of popular music studies, we will gain an understanding of the music industry as complex, contingent and historically changing. Through readings, lectures, in-class and online discussions, and a group genre project, students in this course will gain insight into the following questions:
--> What do we mean when we refer to “the popular,” to popular music, and to “the” music industry?
--> What are we paying for when we pay for “music”? How do performers and other cultural producers negotiate concepts of work, play, and leisure when they make music?
--> What is musical genre? How does it relate to notions of authenticity and identities of race, gender, etc.? How does genre shape the music industry—and how does the music industry shape genre?
--> What are some strategies for interpreting musical texts and performances?
--> How has the role of live performance in the music industry changed historically? How has this affected the lives and livelihoods of performers?
--> How has the recording industry changed historically in terms of technology, business practices, and marketing? How has this affected performers, consumers, and musical genres?
--> How have the roles of songwriter, producer, and performer changed historically? What role does gender, race, and genre play in how we evaluate the skill, authenticity, and originality of musicians?
--> How do popular music scholars conceptualize audiences, subcultures, and scenes?
--> How is the music scene in Hamilton changing? What are some key debates in Hamilton cultural policy?
--> How has music radio changed historically in terms of technology, programming, and policy? What role do notions of musical genre and gender identity play in shaping format radio? What is the state of music radio now?
--> What are some of the historic synergies between the popular music and the film industries?
--> What insights do reality shows like American Idol give into contemporary understandings of the music industry and musical labour?
--> What are the policy aims and cultural effects of CanCon?
--> How has music been used to convey political and social attitudes? How have official bodies responded?
--> How is the music industry changing today? How can studying historical change help us better understand contemporary developments? How is the digital revolution changing music communities, how we consume music, and the lives of musicians? What models are there for an “ethical” music industry—and what constitutes an ethical industry?
Textbooks, Materials & Fees:
Shuker, Roy. Understanding Popular Music Culture, 4th ed. New York: Routledge, 2012. May be purchased at the McMaster University Campus Store.
Other course readings are available on Avenue to Learn.
Method of Assessment:
Your grade will be based on the following:
10% Attendance and participation (due date: ongoing)
21% Online discussion postings (due date: weekly; submit in Discussions on Avenue to Learn)
30% Group genre project (due date: ongoing; see course outline for dates and submission guidelines)
9% Long post revision (due date: 30 November; submit to Dropbox on Avenue to Learn)
30% Final exam (cumulative; to be scheduled by Registrar)
See http://registrar.mcmaster.ca/calendar/year2003/sec_109.htm for the grading scale.
Attendance and participation (10% of final grade)
Discussion and group work is a critical component of this class, particularly during the in-class genre labs. Therefore, attendance at and participation is required. Participation means coming to class ready to contribute to discussion, having read the assignment with the help of the reading guide. Please bring your textbook, courseware and/or reading printouts, and reading notes to every class (reading notes should consist of answers to reading guide questions, bullet points about the strengths and weaknesses of the article, and any questions you have arising from the reading). Participation marks may include reading quizzes and group work. On genre lab days, participation means coming class having made progress on your contributions to the group project and ready to work effectively with your group. Tardiness and absences will have a negative effect upon this grade. If you have a learning disability or other issue that makes participation in class discussion a problem for you, please bring this to my attention early in the semester.
On-line discussion postings (3% each x 7 = 21% of final grade)
The goal of the Avenue to Learn discussion forums is to help you synthesize class lecture, discussion, readings, and the research conducted by your genre group and other groups in the class; to provide a place for you to react on a personal level to course material and discussions; and to help stimulate class discussion. Students should respond to discussion questions, to other entries on the topic, to in-class discussion, and to the readings, and group blogs themselves. Your postings should demonstrate that you have done the readings (e.g., citing specific passages with in-text citations), but they should not be summaries. You will have 11 opportunities to post throughout the semester, from Wednesday, 16 September, to Wednesday, 2 December: each post is due by 11:30 a.m. on the date given on Avenue to Learn. (You may post one additional entry for extra credit.) For each posting, you should submit one entry of 400-500 words. These entries are informal (you may use first person statements), so aim to spend about an hour writing them. They should still display good grammar, correct spelling, and creative, critical thought. Please submit by pasting text into your message, rather than attaching a document. To ensure that your message actually posted, click “refresh” on your web browser: if you don’t see your message, you will need to repost it to receive credit for submitting on time. Each post is worth 3 points. The following rubric will be used to mark postings:
3=insightful, excellent use of course readings and materials; responsive to class discussion, genre blogs, and previous posts (if applicable); inspired ongoing discussion; very well written
2=displays good grasp of course readings and materials; some mention of class discussion, genre blogs, and previous posts (if applicable); inspired some further discussion; adequately written; outside the word count
1=poor grasp of course readings and materials; little mention of class discussion, genre blogs, and previous posts (if applicable); poorly written; outside the word count
0=very poor grasp of course readings and viewings, no mention of class discussion and previous posts (if applicable), very poorly written, outside the word count, submitted late, personally disrespectful, off-topic.
Group genre project (30% of final grade)
Our course textbook, readings, and lecture address several “big” topics related to the music industry—music industry sectors, the media, cultural producers and audiences, and interpretive approaches. It is risky, however, to make broad claims about popular music and the music industry because 1) it has changed significantly over time and 2) there is wide variation depending who makes and consumes the music and how they do so. One of the best ways to examine these differences is by considering musical genre: not only is it a key framework in popular music studies but it is also one of the main ways in which the industry classifies music, performers, and audiences. During the second week of class, we will divide into groups of 4-5 that will select a genre to “follow” for the semester. Genre selections may include hip-hop, Latin music, country, “mainstream” pop, EDM, and rock musics. Groups will be responsible for developing expertise in their genre in relation to key class themes. They will communicate their findings with the class during discussion on Genre Lab days and by curating a blog on Wordpress, which will include a series of 3 substantial postings on set topics, along with shorter posts and links. To facilitate good communication about this work, each group will draw up a contract early in the term that outlines the contributions and expectations for each member, using a template available on Avenue to Learn. On Genre Lab days, groups will have the opportunity to discuss their ongoing work, consult with the instructor and TA, and share their findings with each other as well as other groups. Detailed information on the evaluation criteria and expectations for this assignment is posted on Avenue to Learn and communicated in class.
Long post revision (individual assignment) (9% of final grade)
An important part of the writing process is revision, the reviewing and reworking of a completed draft, either individually or with feedback from an external editor. This assignment gives you an opportunity to develop this crucial skill. Each student is asked to select either Long Post 1 or Long Post 2 from their group blog and, working individually, revise the text of the post, along with images and links to audio and video examples. The post should be one to which you contributed in some way. In your revision, you should take the instructor feedback on the post into careful consideration. The completed revision should be accompanied by a statement indicating how you contributed to the original post, how you responded in your revision to the instructor’s feedback, and any other ways that you improved upon the original post. Detailed information on the evaluation criteria and expectations for this assignment is posted on Avenue to Learn and communicated in class. Due at noon on 30 November; submit to Dropbox on Avenue.
Final exam (30% of final grade)
The final exam will help you reflect on the semester’s activities, readings, discussions, and presentations. It will be in short answer and essay format
Please Note the Following Policies and Statements:
You are expected to exhibit honesty and use ethical behaviour in all aspects of the learning process. Academic credentials you earn are rooted in principles of honesty and academic integrity.
Academic dishonesty is to knowingly act or fail to act in a way that results or could result in unearned academic credit or advantage. This behaviour can result in serious consequences, e.g. the grade of zero on an assignment, loss of credit with a notation on the transcript (notation reads: "Grade of F assigned for academic dishonesty"), and/or suspension or expulsion from the university.
It is your responsibility to understand what constitutes academic dishonesty. For information on the various types of academic dishonesty please refer to the Academic Integrity Policy, located at www.mcmaster.ca/academicintegrity
The following illustrates only three forms of academic dishonesty:
- Plagiarism, e.g. the submission of work that is not one’s own or for which other credit has been obtained.
- Improper collaboration in group work.
- Copying or using unauthorized aids in tests and examinations.
Email correspondence policy
It is the policy of the Faculty of Humanities that all email communication sent from students to instructors (including TAs), and from students to staff, must originate from each student’s own McMaster University email account. This policy protects confidentiality and confirms the identity of the student. Instructors will delete emails that do not originate from a McMaster email account.
Modification of course outlines
The University reserves the right to change dates and/or deadlines etc. for any or all courses in the case of an emergency situation or labour disruption or civil unrest/disobedience, etc. If a modification becomes necessary, reasonable notice and communication with the students will be given with an explanation and the opportunity to comment on changes. Any significant changes should be made in consultation with the Department Chair.
McMaster Student Absence Form (MSAF)
In the event of an absence for medical or other reasons, students should review and follow the Academic Regulation in the Undergraduate Calendar Requests for Relief for Missed Academic Term Work. Please note these regulations have changed beginning Fall 2015. You can find information at mcmaster.ca/msaf/. If you have any questions about the MSAF, please contact your Associate Dean's office.
Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities
Students who require academic accommodation must contact Student Accessibility Services (SAS) to make arrangements with a Program Coordinator. Academic accommodations must be arranged for each term of study. Student Accessibility Services can be contacted by phone 905-525-9140 ext. 28652 or e-mail email@example.com. For further information, consult McMaster University's Policy for Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities.
Academic Accommodation for Religious, Indigenous and Spiritual Observances
Students requiring academic accommodation based on religion and spiritual observances should follow the procedures set out in the Course Calendar or by their respective Faculty. In most cases, the student should contact his or her professor or academic advisor as soon as possible to arrange accommodations for classes, assignments, tests and examinations that might be affected by a religious holiday or spiritual observance.
Topics and Readings:
Part I: Frameworks
Week 1: Introduction
9/9: Class expectations; Class themes
Week 2: Studying Popular Music and the Music Industry
9/14: GENRE LAB: all
9/16: Defining “the popular”; studying popular music; what is the music industry?
Shuker: Introduction; Chapter 1 (pp. 11-15)
Week 3: Genre
9/21: GENRE LAB: all
9/23: Approaches to musical genre; the problem of authenticity
Shuker: Chapter 6; Chapter 12 (pp. 195-202)
Keightley, Keir. “Reconsidering Rock.” In The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock, ed. Simon Frith, Will Straw, and John Street, 109-42. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Listening/viewing checklist [online]
Campbell chapter (guide to musical terms and concepts) [online]
à Group Genre Project: Contract due: 11:59 p.m., Friday, 25 September
à Group Genre Project: Site setup deadline: 11:59 p.m., Friday, 25 September
Part II: Where are we coming from?
Week 4 Music Industry I: Live Performance
9/28: GENRE LAB: Group A
9/30: Live performance in 2 periods of transition; music professionals and employment (1920s-30s); pop concerts in the 2000s
Shuker: Chapter 3 (pp. 47-51)
Nott, James. “Developments in ‘Live Music’ 1918-1939: From ‘Performers’ to ‘Listeners.’” Music for the People: Popular Music and Dance in Interwar Britain, 99-126. London: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Holt, Fabian. “The Economy of Live Music in the Digital Age.” European Journal of Cultural Studies 13/2 (2010): 243-61.
Week 5: Music Industry II: Recording
10/5: GENRE LAB: Group B
10/7: Race, genre, and recording in the 1920s and 1930s
Shuker: Chapter 1 (pp. 15-25); Chapter 2
Miller, Karl Hagstrom. “Race Records and Old-Time Music: The Creation of Two Marketing Categories in the 1920s” and excerpt from “Black Folk and Hillbilly Pop: Industry Enforcement of the Musical Color Line.” Segregating Sound: Inventing Folk and Pop Music in the Age of Jim Crow, 187-214, 227-40, 312-17, 319-21. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010.
à Group Genre Project: long blog post 1 due: 11:59 p.m., Friday, 9 October
Fall Break, 12-16 October: NO CLASS
Week 6: Cultural Producers
10/19: GENRE LAB: all
10/21: performance, creative control, gender, and race
Shuker: Chapter 3 (40-47; 52-57); Chapter 4
Fast, Susan. “Bold Soul Trickster: The 60s Tina Signifies.” In She’s So Fine: Reflections on Whiteness, Femininity, Adolescence and Class in 1960s Music, ed. Laurie Stras, 203-34. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2011.
Warwick, Jacqueline. “Record Producers and the Politics of Production.” Girl Groups, Girl Culture: Popular Music and Identity in the 1960s, 93-107, 232-34. New York: Routledge, 2007.
à Group Genre Project: 2 comments on other group blogs due: 11:59 p.m., Friday, 23 October
Part III: Where are we? Where are we going?
Week 7: Audiences, Subcultures, Scenes
10/26: Special Guest: Lane Dunlop, Sonic Unyon
10/28: the Hamilton scene
Shuker: Chapters 10-11
Henderson, Scott. “‘This Ain’t Hollywood’: Identity, Nostalgia and the Role of Culture Industries in the Hamilton Music Scene.” Canadian Folk Music/Musique folklorique canadienne 45/1 (2011): 15-20.
à Group Genre Project: long blog post 2 due: 11:59 p.m., Friday, 30 October
Week 8: Mediation I: Radio and Formats
11/2: GENRE LAB: Group A
11/4: radio formats; internet radio
Shuker: Chapter 7; skim/optional: Chapter 9
Weisbard, Eric. “This Generation’s Radio: Music Formats in the Early 2000s.” Top 40 Democracy: The Rival Mainstreams of American Music, 238-66, 305-9. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.
Razlagova, Elena. “The Past and Future of Music Listening: Between Freeform DJs and Recommendation Algorithms.” In Radio’s New Wave: Global Sound in the Digital Era, eds. Jason Loviglio and Michele Hilmes, 62–76. New York: Routledge, 2013.
Week 9: Mediation II: Film and Television
11/9: GENRE LAB: Group B
11/11: Neoliberalism and television: American Idol
Shuker: Chapter 8
Stahl, Matt. “American Idol and Narratives of Meritocracy.” Recording Artists and the Politics of Work, 36-63, 239-42. Durham: Duke University Press, 2013.
à Group Genre Project: short blog post 1 due (optional): 11:59 p.m., Friday, 13 November
Week 10: Mediation III: CanCon, Music, and Politics
11/16: GENRE LAB: Group A
11/18: globalization, CanCon, and representing Canada
Shuker: Chapter 5; Chapter 12 (pp. 187-95); Chapter 14
Pegley, Kip. “‘The Rock Man’s Burden’: Consuming Canada at Live 8.” In Music In Television: Channels of Listening, ed. James Deaville, 199-215. New York: Routledge, 2011.
Recommended: Henderson, Scott. “Canadian Content Regulations and the Formation of a National Scene.” Popular Music 27/2 (2008): 307-15.
à Group Genre Project: long blog post 3 due: 11:59 p.m., Friday, 20 November
Week 11: Music Industry III: Post Industry?
11/23: GENRE LAB: Group B
11/25: What does it mean to be a musician, now?
Kruse, Holly. “Local Identity and Independent Music Scenes, Online and Off.” Popular Music and Society 33/5 (2010): 625-39.
Allen, Dave. “Who Cares About the Future of Music? Opportunities and Ethics in the Age of Internet Music Streaming.” Oregon Humanities (Fall/Winter 2012). Reposted on North <http://north.com/thinking/who-cares-about-the-future-of-music/> [online]
Mecija, Casey. “Goodbye Ohbijou: Notes on Music, Labour, and the Impossibilities of Satisfying Multicultural Ideals in Canada.” Ohbijou News, 16 August 2013, <http://www.ohbijou.com/news.html>. [online]
à Group Genre Project: short blog post 2 due (optional): 11:59 p.m., Friday, 27 November
Week 12: Music Industry III, continued, and review
11/30: Special Guest: Casey Mecija
à Long Post revision due (individual assignment) to DropBox on Avenue: noon, Monday, 30 November (note: late revision assignments will be accepted without penalty until noon, Monday, 7 December)
12/2: Review session 1
à Group Genre Project: short blog post 3 due (optional): 11:59 p.m., Friday, 4 December
à Group Genre Project: 3 comments on other group blogs due: 11:59 p.m., Friday, 4 December
Week 13: Review
12/7: Review session 2
à Group Genre Project: Peer evaluation due (optional): 11:59 p.m., Wednesday, 9 December
à Final exam to be scheduled by the Registrar
Other Course Information:
Avenue to Learn: This course has an Avenue to Learn site, where you will be required to post your weekly journals, learn about class updates and resources, and participate in an online discussion forum. You can log in at http://avenue.mcmaster.ca/.
McMaster Policy for Courses with an On-line Element:
“In this course we will be using Avenue to Learn and Wordpress. Students should be aware that, when they access the electronic components of this course, private information such as first and last names, user names for the McMaster e-mail accounts, and program affiliation may become apparent to all other students in the same course. The available information is dependent on the technology used. Continuation in this course will be deemed consent to this disclosure. If you have any questions or concerns about such disclosure please discuss this with the course instructor.”
Discussion: We will be discussing challenging and sometimes controversial material this semester. Everyone deserves to participate in a respectful class environment. If you have any concerns, please contact me.
Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities:
Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities Language for Course Outlines:
“Students who require academic accommodation must contact Student Accessibility Services (SAS) to make arrangements with a Program Coordinator. Academic accommodations must be arranged for each term of study. Student Accessibility Services can be contacted by phone 905-525-9140 ext. 28652 or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. For further information, consult McMaster University’s Policy for Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities: http://www.mcmaster.ca/policy/Students-AcademicStudies/AcademicAccommodation-StudentsWithDisabilities.pdf.”
If you have a learning or other disability requiring assistance or accommodation, or if you have questions related to any accommodations, please communicate this to me as soon a possible.
Academic Accommodation for Religious, Indigenous and Spiritual Observances:
Academic Accommodation for Religious, Indigenous and Spiritual Observances Language for Course Outlines:
“Students requiring academic accommodation based on religion and spiritual observances should follow the procedures set out in the Course Calendar or by their respective Faculty. In most cases, the student should contact his or her professor or academic advisor as soon as possible to arrange accommodations for classes, assignments, tests and examinations that might be affected by a religious holiday or spiritual observance.”
I am committed to working with students to accommodate religious, indigenous, and spiritual accommodations. According to the policy, students requiring accommodation should submit their RISO form the Humanities Faculty Office. Once the Faculty office acknowledges receipt, students can contact me and other instructors at least 5 working days before the scheduling conflict will occur. For more information on the policy, please see http://www.mcmaster.ca/policy/Students-AcademicStudies/AcademicAccommodation-Observances.pdf.
Course Modification The instructor and university reserve the right to modify elements of the course during the term. The university may change the dates and deadlines for any or all courses in extreme circumstances. If either type of modification becomes necessary, reasonable notice and communication with the students will be given with explanation and the opportunity to comment on changes. It is the responsibility of the student to check their McMaster email and course websites weekly during the term and to note any changes.
Academic Integrity Statement
McMaster Policy on Academic Integrity:
You are expected to exhibit honesty and use ethical behaviour in all aspects of the learning process. Academic credentials you earn are rooted in principles of honesty and academic integrity.
Academic dishonesty is to knowingly act or fail to act in a way that results or could result in unearned academic credit or advantage. This behaviour can result in serious consequences—e.g., the grade of zero on an assignment, loss of credit with a notation on the transcript (notation reads: “Grade of F assigned for academic dishonesty”), and/or suspension or expulsion from the university.
It is your responsibility to understand what constitutes academic dishonesty. For information on the various types of academic dishonesty, please refer to the Academic Integrity Policy, located at: http://www.mcmaster.ca/academicintegrity
The following illustrates only three forms of academic dishonesty: 1) Plagiarism—e.g., the submission of work that is not one’s own or for which other credit has been obtained. 2) Improper collaboration in group work. 3) Copying or using unauthorized aids in tests and examinations.